Inventing a bicycle or implementing a friendly head rotation system for game characters

It has been a long time since any serious programming challenge. And here it is! Just started some research on bone rotation in characters’ meshes and found out that the built-in system is.. Well… Not so friendly and not so easy to use. So here’s another challenge: make a friendly, easy to use bone rotation system within LBTechnology. Of course, I’ve been doing stuff like this before, and I know ‘the shit’, but well I’ve never programmed bone rotation system ‘from scratch’. And I just didn’t know it would be that challenging. Also I’ve been aware of the trickiness of such systems from them games, which do implement such systems – i.e. famous Mass-Effect and Fallout spinning heads. But you know, you don’t know something until you try it yourself. But I’m not them Bioware nor Bethesda – I’ve got plenty of time and plenty of dope to study the problem thoroughly and no project-master whipping my ass each time I do wrong.

So, what do we basically need to implement the head-facing-target system? Well: the character having its mesh with a needed bone, the target and some code. So we’ve got the char, the target, the only thing we need – is the code, which rotates the head to face the target.

tech_task
A technical task for this problem

Well, the first and the most obvious and, perhaps, the only solution is to take the distance between the target and the head formula_v_calc, get its normal, formula_v_modulo, somehow turn it into rotation formula_rotation and set this value to the head. Looks quite easy to implement with modern game development tools.

solution
A basic solution for this problem

Ha-ha, not that easy! Far not that easy! A plenty of problems await here, of course depending on the tool you’re using.

Problem number one, coordinatie transforms. This is the first thing you’ll encounter. For example, you’ve just calculated the formula_R_value value and you’re looking at the result… And the result seems to frustrate you! Really, the bone can twist any direction except the correct! Why does it happen? Simply because you’re setting the values in world coordinates. The bone may have its own coordinate basis or it may be using it’s parent bone’s coordinates or anything else like this. So, the first thing, you should take into account is coordinate transforms from world to local for the rotating bone. My solution of this problem is to go ‘the hard way’ – this means not to use any advanced math, just transform the axis based on a pre-set rule. I called this procedure Rotation Resolving (not yet copyrighted, I hope) based on some specialized structures – Rotation Resolvers. You just point each axis, from where to get its value – i.e [Yaw-Pitch, Pitch-Roll, Roll-Yaw]. This functionality was implemented in LBSkeletalMeshControlMechanism.

Code solving problem one
...

enum RotatorAxis
{
    RotatorAxis_Yaw,
    RotatorAxis_Pitch,
    RotatorAxis_Roll,
};

struct RotatorResolver
{
    var() RotatorAxis GetYawFrom;
    var() bool bInvertYaw;
    var() RotatorAxis GetPitchFrom;
    var() bool bInvertPitch;
    var() RotatorAxis GetRollFrom;
    var() bool bInvertRoll;
};

...

function rotator ResolveRotator(rotator r, RotatorResolver resolver)
{
    local rotator res;
    
    res.Yaw=ResolveRotatorAxis(r,resolver.GetYawFrom,resolver.bInvertYaw);
    res.Pitch=ResolveRotatorAxis(r,resolver.GetPitchFrom,resolver.bInvertPitch);
    res.Roll=ResolveRotatorAxis(r,resolver.GetRollFrom,resolver.bInvertRoll);
        
    return res;
}

...

function int ResolveRotatorAxis(rotator r, RotatorAxis axis, optional bool binvert = false)
{
    if (axis==RotatorAxis_Yaw)   
    {
        if (!binvert) 
            return r.Yaw;
        else
            return -r.Yaw;
    }
    else if (axis==RotatorAxis_Pitch)
    {
        if (!binvert) 
            return r.Pitch;
        else
            return -r.Pitch;
    }
    else if (axis==RotatorAxis_Roll)
    {
        if (!binvert) 
            return r.Roll;
        else
            return -r.Roll;
    }
}

...

Problem number two, rotation restraints. This is the second thing you’ll encounter. Afer all that coordinate transform troubles you’ll finally be able to set corresponding rotation values to the rotating bone. But your character’s head would spin around its neck like it’s not attached to it. And this result will frustrate you too! Because it does look strange and funny. Well, only birds can spin their heads more than 180°, but even they’re not able to make a 360° twist (but it seems like they can, anyway I don’t care).

voa1pp
A GIF from the internet

Therefore, you’ll need to limit the available angle of rotation for each rotation axis. The most obvious solution here is to clamp your desired angle, formula_a between this axis restraints formula_a1 and formula_a2 , so you’ll get your angle like formula_clamp_2.

angle_clamps

But this solution has on big drawback – sometimes you get wrong results. For example, if your angle uses formula_deg_forma_1 format, you’ll get some trouble trying to limit the rotation from 330° to 30°. The best solution in my opinion is to use the formula_deg_forma_2 format, especially if it runs up to infinity (both infinities), otherwise you’ll get troubles with cycle transition from 180° to -180° (just like me). But my solution of this problem is to go ‘the hard way’, it’s nothing that special except the ClampRotatorAxis function, which is… Well, just lol. Anyway, I’ve implemented a function, which clamps one axis, and a function, which clamps all three rotation axes. This functionality was implemented in LBBoneRotationMechanism.

Code solving problem two
...

function int ClampRotatorAxis(int axisvalue, int min, int max)
{
    local int r,f1,f2;
    
    f1=NormalizeRotAxis(min);
    f2=NormalizeRotAxis(max);
    
    r=NormalizeRotAxis(axisvalue);
    
    if (0<=f1*unrrottodeg && f1*unrrottodeg<=180)
    {
        if (0<=f2*unrrottodeg && f2*unrrottodeg<=180)
        {
            if (0< r+(-f2))    
                    r=f1; 
                else 
                    r=f2;    
            }
        }   
    }   
    
    return r;  
}

...

function rotator ClampRotator(rotator r, optional bool bClampYaw=false, optional int Yawf1=0, optional int Yawf2=0, optional bool bClampPitch=false, optional int Pitchf1=0, optional int Pitchf2=0,
optional bool bClampRoll=false, optional int Rollf1=0, optional int Rollf2=0)
{   
    local rotator res;
    
    if (bClampYaw)
        res.Yaw=ClampRotatorAxis(r.Yaw,Yawf1,Yawf2);
        
    if (bClampPitch)
        res.Pitch=ClampRotatorAxis(r.Pitch,Pitchf1,Pitchf2); 
     
    if (bClampRoll)
        res.Roll=ClampRotatorAxis(r.Roll,Rollf1,Rollf2);  

    return res;    
}

...

Problem number three, smooth movement. This is the third thing you’ll encounter, possibly. Setting the values even if they are axis-transformed and clamped causes your character’s head to rotate as fast as it is possible. For example, if the target teleports – your char’s head will instantly (in one frame) turn there. It looks very strange, sometimes even scares the crap outta player. Sometimes this problem is not actual, but for my case it is important to solve it (just because there are some objects that can teleport). So, what is the solution? It’s quite simple: we don’t set the exact rotation on each frame, we remember this value in one of our variables (a TargetRotation variable) and increase our head’s rotation each frame until we reach this value (using some kind of interpolation if you’re a math dude). Nothing special, but there is still a lot of problems here as we deal with cyclic values – the formula_deg_forma_2 form of degree value. My solution is just as described – increasing the real rotation with certain speed until it reaches the needed value. Well, I just used the linear interpolation formula to get the value for each tick, it works fine for some reason (except that case with cycle transition from 180° to -180°), but I’ll be making a new interpolation function anyway soon. This functionality was  also implemented in LBBoneRotationMechanism.

Code solving problem three
...

function float RotateYaw(float dt)
{
    local float crot,trot,rrot;
    
    trot=NormalizeRotAxis(GetTargetRotation().Yaw);

    crot=NormalizeRotAxis(currot.Yaw);   
    
    if (bSmoothRotation)
        rrot=LinearInerpFloatValue(crot*unrrottodeg,trot*unrrottodeg,TickIndependentFloat(AngularSpeed,dt,RotationTimeScale),dt)*degtounrrot;
    else
        rrot=trot;
        
    return rrot;   
}

...

function float LinearInerpFloatValue(float current, float target, float step, float dt)
{
    local float value;
    
    if (abs(current - target) > abs(step))
    {
        if (current < target)
            value=current+abs(step); 
        else
            value=current-abs(step);   
    }
    else
    {
        if (current < target)
            value=current+abs(current - target); 
        else
            value=current-abs(current - target);      
    }
        
     return value;
}

...

And, finally, there’s the result after long time spent debugging. Well, it was rough, even for me. Also I’ve included several additional features – a hard-align (always try to look at the target) and soft-align (look at the target only when the angle is inside them restraints), a Look-At-Point and Look-At-Actor modes, which can become quite handy for mechanism interactions.

Also, there’s a video with a complete demonstration of this system:

Advertisements
Inventing a bicycle or implementing a friendly head rotation system for game characters

Improved action mechanics

So, I’ve made some improvements in the action-interaction system. It has been a long-needed update. In different games player is able to perform different actions, not only just run, jump and shoot. Well, honestly, a major part the gameplay nowadays is built around actions and interactions, so inadequate and ineffective solutions are unacceptable. This leads us to a completely new domain of problems: we need a separate mechanism for performing character’s actions. The concept is simple: there are some actions, each can be performed by the character. An action has certain properties, like it’s relationship with animation — an action may or may not have an animation, and it’s relationship with character state and other actions — an action may or may not have effects on the game pawn (except the animations effect). Thus, we come to a fairly easy solution — the LBBasicCharacaterController, which is capable of performing actions, which means the ability to play animations and change pawn’s states (virtually, of course). Basically, we’ll be working only with current character’s logic, leaving all underlying activity to the basic character controller. So, we’re interested in only in these methods:

function HandleActionStart(int startedaction)
{ }
function HandleActionStop(int stoppedaction)
{ }
function HandleAnimNotify(int actioncode, int actiondata, 
ActionNotifyTypes notifytype)
{ }

Which do handle action start, action end and animation notifies, which may or may not trigger during the action animation. If we don’t need any character-specific logic or we just want a Garry’s Mod-styled animation player, we can just use the editor. For the designer it’s really simple — all what’s required is to fill out the Character Action List in the editor, which contains all the necessary data.

char_interact_params_1_1.PNG

For example, here I’ve made four basic actions: touch, pick up, put down, carry, three last interactions I’ve been describing earlier, the touch action and the appropriate interaction I’ll describe later. Also I’ve made some auxiliary actions, which really don’t have any effect in the game, except they do play animation. All options of this actions are shown below, for example, them options of the touch action mean that this action is controlled by the certain animation: the action starts with the animation and ends with this animation, also it may have activation restrictions and switch links. What is activation restriction? It’s simple — the action cannot be performed from any actions (state-actions), except these. And the switch link is a type of  a bridge between the actions — upon its finish, the action can be automatically switched to another one. Well, I’ve made some comments (been trying my best) in sources on GitHub.

char_interact_params_1_2

Next thing, what is required — the proper animation, set up and linked to the LBBlendByAction animnode, which blends all animations. There’s also a default node, which is used to blend out, when the default action is active.

animtree_nodes_1_1.PNG

Thus, all, what’s required now is to call a needed action by the SetParamInt() function with param name ‘BeginAction‘ and param value containing the action code. Also, this can be performed from any sub-system, but I’ve chosen Kismet and its keyboard events.

kismet_nodes_4

Well, let’s test this functionality. I’ve made some random (though interdependent) animation sequences (though craggy) for the character, then plugged them into the new action system. There’s a state-action, which defines character’s state — the ‘Sit_Tie_Idle‘ action. There are also two gateway-actions — the ‘Sit_Tie_In‘ as an entrance into this state and the ‘Sit_Tie_Out‘ as an exit. And there are two actions, performed exclusively from the ‘Sit_Tie_Idle‘ state — the ‘Sit_Tie_Gym_1‘ and the ‘Sit_Tie_Gym_2‘.

Now we can make our character do different things. For example, we can watch our strange character doing its strange exercises (some kind of gym, maybe?). However, everything happens in the right order, for example, it can’t just start walking or jumping from a stretched pose, it has to stand up first.

Improved action mechanics

Some test run on a new level

Just made a test run on a level I’ve made recently. Playing with ground-walking bipedal character (xw_char), which is capable of walk, run and jump. Also, there’s a good, smooth camera plugged in, which can be attached to almost everything.

Yes, now we’re able to jump. I’ve decided to make ground characters able to jump. Why not, it’s qute fair in comparison with other characters, which can fly or event teleport (but can’t walk, lol). However jump system needs some fix.

There’s also another interactive actor – the way-pointer (mg_char). Most of the time the player just follows this actor. When the player is too far away it stops moving, and when the player is close – it speeds up (such a hackneyed idea).

Well, let’s look, how it all works all together. However, it turned out to be quite hard to use keyboard instead ot the joystick (okay, gamepad).

Some test run on a new level

A strange construct in the desert

One of the first levels for the project «A Dream In The Fall». The idea is to find and capture all golems to be able to shove a stuck head. The level mostly consists of platforms and tracks, that connect the platforms. Any other area in the level is a quicksand, which pulls the player down.

The playable character for this level is a walking character (xw_char), which is capable of fast movement and overcoming most of the obstacles. It is also capable of interacting with some interactable objects, placed all over the level, which are used to capture golems.

All golems are initally deactivated, so any golem, except the first, is ought to be interacted in a certain way (well, I think it should be just a touch interaction) to become active.

The graphic component still needs serious improvements: the detail level of world geometry is very poor, especially – the textures, also the sand looks like an old heavily urinated carpet.

A strange construct in the desert

Movement mechanics

Almost the first time doing serious bipedal movement mechanics and animation. Let’s make a first step into the complex character animation (or not). Anyway, here’s the workflow. Honestly, once I’ve been involved in such an affair… And things did not go very well, but that was then. Anyways, now is the first real attempt to create an acceptable bipedal character movement animation and mechanics. First, I’ve made a complete redesign of an old version of movement mechanic, which was a special pawn and was very hard to use. Well, now it looks shiny and new, now this code goes to a new separate mechanism — LBCharacterWalkMovementMechanism, which is now based on LBCharacterMovementMechanism (empty at the moment, lol) and conains all the code, needed for performing pawn movement and blending the animation. It also has all parameters, which are used to regulate pawn’s speed and acceleration.

walk_movement_mechanism

It has the forward speed parameter and a forward speed coefficient to handle forward speed, same to the sidestep (strafe?) speed. Also it has accel rate, which is used to speed the pawn up, when it wants to run. Another important thing here is the angular speed, which is represented by angular speed parameter and an angular speed coefficient, which are used to handle pawn’s rotation. Also it has move direction, which is used to point the desired movement direction. It’s worth noting, that pawn rotation is quite an interesting task itself (later on this). Second, I’ve made several frames of animation for the character, the walker (xw_char). It wasn’t easy, because someone’s left in it’s feet only one bone. Maybe it was even me. Anyways, there are two fairly appropriate animations sequences:

Simple walk animation:

xenowalker_walk_gifxenowalker_walk_gif_side

Simple run animation:

xenowalker_run_gifxenowalker_run_gif_side

Other intermediate and supportive animations are quite crappy to be shown here. It should be noted that I used the walk and run cycle tutorials by Richard Williams as a reference (found all over the internet) for my walk and run animations. As a result, we’ve got the following animtree:

Where BlendByAngSpeed node does blending between middle, left and right turn sequences and BlendByFwdSpeed node does blending between walk and run sequences. Also, while blending between walk and run is quite a simple task, but blending between rotations seems to be more complex. Using unique animation sequences turned out be the best way to solve this problem, others, like using direct bone rotations may cause weired effects in my animtree during blending between states, for example. Finally, we’ve got the result, let’s see how does it look all together:

Walk and run animations in game:

Turn and turn in place animations in game:

However, complex tests reveal some flaws, like minor body jerking and leg rattling, also there’s still no jump and sidestep implementation. And ofcourse, the camera is terrible, but controlling with joystick (gamepad) partially solves the problem. Nevertheless, in general it looks not too bad.

Movement mechanics

The Lost Head gameplay test

A gameplay test of a game prototype. The player takes control over the lost head, which is detached from the escaping body. The player should be able to solve some problems to bring things back to their places.

The level contains: player-controlled character (The Head) and the non-player-controlled character (The Body), pre-set cameras, location triggers and linked scripted events.

The Lost Head gameplay test